Anaerobic digestion: How we get energy from waste

A Waste Administration system which appropriates for refining blended (black bag) waste has actually been established from innovation initial established in Israel. Unused equipments in office should be cleaned up by office rubbish removal Sydney to maintain cleanliness in your working area.

It recoups resources from waste while producing renewable energy and also assisting to lower carbon exhausts. In other words it releases energy from our rubbish, and also minimizes the amount of rubbish which could or else be sent to landfill, while at the same time lowering environment modification.

This is really a win-win situation!

The ArrowBio process has been created through a collection of pilot and demo plants to a level ready to be used commercially in many countries, and is best described as a water-based mechanical biological treatment (MBT) facility with energy recovery.

ArrowBio’s process has been created as if it can either be utilized as a stand-alone option or in conjunction with other modern technologies. For example it can be sited within sustainable energy parks to provide a source of power in addition to recycled products for further handling. The recycled products are re-used as feedstock by the other organisations based within the park to develop a selection of products.

Two Stage Anaerobic Digestor

ArrowBio sets out to fully recuperate as well as wash the recyclable elements of the waste, so it must be favoured by ecological teams which tend to challenge alternative processes which handle mixed waste, like incineration, on the basis that the capability of incineration to handle combined wastes decreases the requirement to separate as well as recycle. The argument is that incineration makes it also easy to forget recycling, so it must not be utilized.

The process contends its core a 2 stage anaerobic digestor which has been optimized for much better energy yield than completing systems, from every system mass of raw material processed.

Removing the optimum available gas yield, remains in fact a specified main objective of the ArrowBio processs.

This is acknowledged as excellent policy eco, and also of course the gas as well as, or electrical power generates revenue, which helps to spend for the upkeep of the plant.

The process consists of 2 unique yet integrated elements: a “front-end ” damp Materials Healing Center (MRF) and also a “back-end ” progressed anaerobic food digestion system.

The damp MRF incorporates conventional solid waste handling innovation in mix with fluid as well as slurry pumping, water based handling assists in, easy separation, and also cleansing of recyclables as well as their automated conveyance around the center, while likewise subduing odours and also dust.

In the wet MRF, the activity of the water cleanses, and recuperates, ferrous steels, non-ferrous steels as well as plastics divided by kind. These are after that arranged into recycled products of different grades that can be offered directly into the reusing market.

A “hydrocrusher ” has also been effectively established by ArrowBio which forms part of the wet (anaerobic) process. In effect the eco-friendly waste is jetted with high pressure jets of water through a series of pipes. Food and also paper is torn apart, greatly boosting the surface area available to organic activity, while concurrently putting on hold the natural chemicals in a watery option.

Any waste that is not recoverable or that is not sent through the anaerobic digesters leaves from the ArrowBio facility as a residue, and also is normally present in only in small quantities.

The initial part of ArrowBio’s anaerobic food digestion procedure is referred to as the acidogenic phase, and also the 2nd is a methanogenic phase. The biomass accomplishes maximum effectiveness compared to solitary tank AD, as well as optimization of pH levels, temperature and residence times is achieved instantly.

The plant has low discharges. The ArrowBio style needs no expensive gas rubbing phase, and the mostly water birthed strategy does not generate the frustrating (dirt, smell, etc) exhausts experienced from some other processes.

Recognition of the sustainability advantages of Anaerobic Digestion in releasing energy from our garbage is rising fast.

Find out more about this innovation for the future, at the Anaerobic Digestion Community internet site, as well as much more regarding the ArrowBio AD Process also.

Anaerobic Food Digestion Makes Renewable Resource From Waste

A Waste Management system which is suitable for refining blended (black bag) waste has been established from modern technology initial established in Israel. Green waste disposal service compost the green wastes.

It recuperates resources from waste while producing renewable resource and aiding to decrease carbon discharges. Simply puts it launches power from our rubbish, and minimizes the amount of rubbish which could or else be sent to land fill, while at the same time lowering environment modification.

This is really a great deal!

The ArrowBio procedure has been developed through a collection of pilot and also demo plants to a level prepared to be utilized commercially in several nations, and also is best described as a water-based mechanical organic treatment (MBT) center with power recuperation.

ArrowBio’s procedure has been established as if it can either be utilized as a option or together with other innovations. As an example it can be sited within lasting power parks to offer a source of power in addition to recycled products for further handling. The recycled products are re-used as feedstock by the various other organisations based within the park to create a variety of products.

Two Phase Anaerobic Digestor

ArrowBio sets out to totally recuperate and also wash the recyclable aspects of the waste, so it needs to be favoured by ecological groups which have the tendency to object to alternate processes which handle combined waste, like incineration, on the basis that the capacity of incineration to manage blended wastes minimizes the necessity to separate and also reuse. The argument is that incineration makes it as well simple to overlook recycling, so it must not be used.

The process contends its core a two stage anaerobic digestor which has been maximized for far better power return than completing systems, from every unit mass of raw material processed.

Drawing out the maximum readily available gas yield, remains in fact a mentioned key goal of the ArrowBio processs.

This is identified as great plan environmentally, and certainly the gas and also, or electrical power produces income, which assists to spend for the maintenance of the plant.

The process includes two distinct yet integrated parts: a “front-end ” damp Products Recovery Center (MRF) and also a “back-end ” progressed anaerobic digestion system.

The damp MRF combines standard solid waste taking care of innovation in mix with fluid and also slurry pumping, water based processing assists in, easy separation, and cleansing of recyclables and also their automated conveyance around the facility, while likewise reducing smells as well as dirt.

In the wet MRF, the action of the water cleans up, and recuperates, ferrous steels, non-ferrous metals and also plastics divided by type. These are then arranged into recycled products of different qualities that can be sold directly into the recycling market.

A “hydrocrusher ” has also been effectively developed by ArrowBio which develops part of the damp (anaerobic) procedure. Essentially the naturally degradable waste is jetted with high pressure jets of water through a collection of pipelines. Food as well as paper is torn apart, considerably raising the surface area available to organic activity, while at the same time putting on hold the natural chemicals in a watery option.

Any kind of waste that is not recoverable or that is not sent with the anaerobic digesters leaves from the ArrowBio facility as a deposit, and is usually present in just in small amounts.

The first part of ArrowBio’s anaerobic digestion process is referred to as the acidogenic phase, and also the second is a methanogenic stage. The biomass achieves maximum performance compared with solitary storage tank AD, as well as optimisation of pH levels, temperature level and home times is achieved automatically.

The plant has reduced emissions. The ArrowBio design needs no costly gas rubbing stage, and also the greatly water birthed strategy does not create the troublesome (dirt, smell, etc) emissions experienced from some other procedures.

Recognition of the sustainability benefits of Anaerobic Digestion in launching power from our garbage is rising quick.

Learn even more concerning this modern technology for the future, at the Anaerobic Food digestion Area web site, and also much more about the ArrowBio AD Refine as well.

How to create your perfect kitchen

Whether you’re updating your existing kitchen or adding an extension, there are 10 key steps you will need to follow. Proper planning and preparation will help make sure you the final outcome fulfils your needs. A good kitchen companies Sydney will provide you with a kitchen designer.

Always use the skills of an architect, architectural technician or kitchen designer – they have a wealth of design knowledge and know how to create a room that works perfectly with the rest of your house.

1. Understand the space you have

Before you start choosing units and tiles, you need to understand the space you’re working with. Ask a kitchen company, an architect or architectural technologist for scale drawings. This will enable you to see exactly how much room you have to work with, and you can start planning how to make the most of it.

Think about the location of internal and external doors and windows, so you have the best flow possible between your kitchen, outside space and the rest of your house. Have a clear idea of how much you want to spend before contacting a designer, as this will ensure you end up with a scheme you can afford.

2. Consider the best layout

You need to design the kitchen layout to fit your lifestyle. If you want an open-plan kitchen-living-diner, think about where each zone will work best. It usually makes sense to have the kitchen in the darkest part of the space, with the dining and living areas – where you will spend more time relaxing – closest to windows overlooking the garden.

There’s a growing trend for ‘broken-plan’ living, where the spaces are only partly separated –you may want to include a half wall between the kitchen and living space, or a pocket sliding door that allows you to divide off the dining room for more formal entertaining.

Breakfast bars or islands are a key component of most kitchens these days, so work with your designer to decide the best location for yours. You don’t want it to interrupt the flow of the room, and may want to integrate your sink or hob into the island to allow the chef to interact with people using the rest of the space.

You’ll also need to consider your glazing choices carefully, as this can make or break a design – do you want bi-fold or sliding doors? Would rooflights help bring natural light into the depths of the room? Now is the time to make these major decisions.

Here are some of the items you may want to include in your new kitchen:

  • Wall units
  • Base units
  • Glazed display units
  • Larder units
  • Island
  • Breakfast bar
  • Ovens
  • Hob
  • Sink
  • Tap or boiling water tap
  • Ceiling or downdraught extractor
  • Dining area
  • Living area
  • Underfloor heating
  • Pantry
  • Utility room
  • Rooflights
  • Bi-fold/sliding doors3

3. Decide on the style you want

Once you’ve decided on the best layout, you can start finalising the details. Do your research to find out exactly what style of kitchen suits your taste and lifestyle. For instance, if you have young children, smooth, wipe-clean units will be easier to keep clean than painted Shaker-style ones.

You’ll have to live with the design for years, so it’s worth spending time getting it right. Use homes magazines, architectural websites, kitchen company catalogues, design books and Pinterest to pull together a mood board of what you like. Allow yourself a few months to do this and you’ll soon see key themes emerging.

You’ll also need to finalise your budget at this stage to make sure you’re not looking at options out of your price range. Remember that just because you can’t afford high-end design choices like marble work surfaces, it doesn’t mean you can’t get the look with a cheaper alternative, such as a quality laminate. The huge range of kitchens on the market means, if you are willing to shop around, you can get a kitchen you love at a price you can afford.

Follow these tips to manage the cost of your new kitchen:

  • Remodelling costs less than extending, but as the kitchen is the most important room in the house for most people, it’s worth investing in the space to get it right
  • If your budget is tight, keep the design simple
  • A good-quality painted kitchen can be good value, as instead of replacing it, you can change the colour and look when you decide to redecorate
  • If you have to prioritise, invest in high-quality worktops and taps. High-fashion kitchens can look great, but may date quickly

4. Get the permission you need

If you’re planning to make internal structural changes to your kitchen, such as knocking down the wall between your kitchen and dining room, you won’t usually need planning permission, as this is covered by permitted development.

The majority of single-storey extensions are also covered by permitted development; however, certain exclusions and criteria apply, so always check with your local authority’s planning department before starting work.

Even if you don’t need planning permission, it may be worth applying to your local planning authority for a lawful development certificate, which proves that the work is lawful, and can be useful when you come to sell. If you are planning structural changes, make sure you use the services of an approved structural engineer.

Try our handy quiz, which will tell you instantly whether you’ll need planning permission for your kitchen extension.

5. Find the right team

Once you’ve had your plans drawn up and permissions granted, you’ll need to find tradespeople you trust to carry out any structural work and install your kitchen. This could include a builder, joiner, plumber, electrician and decorator.

For each of the different trades, you should get at least three detailed written quotes. Recommendations are always the best way to find people to work with, so ask friends and family before searching online.

Bear in mind that the cheapest quote may not be the best if it does not meet all your requirements, and you need to feel comfortable with the people you choose to work with.

Some kitchen companies offer a complete design, build and installation package, meaning you won’t need to find individual tradespeople, although this is often more expensive. If you choose this option, again always get quotes from at least three different kitchen companies. Even if you’ve fallen in love with a kitchen offered by one specific company, chances are others will offer something very similar.

6. Finalise the details

Once work starts, making changes can be costly. Agree on all of the final details, including the handles, appliances and other details, and stick to them.

It’s especially important to confirm the location of appliances, lighting and sockets, making sure sockets are in places that will be convenient, such as by the fridge and kettle. You should also consider where to put charging points and whether you’d like USB sockets.

And think carefully about extraction. Will you have a traditional overhead extractor, or could you install a downdraft model, which slots into your kitchen worktop and can pop up at the touch of a button?

When it comes to artificial lighting, make sure you include a combination of task, ambient and accent lighting. By finalising the details and ordering materials now, you’ll help the project run smoothly.

7. Start the building work

Now you have the team you want to work with and quotes agreed, it’s time for construction work to start. If you’re having walls demolished or an extension built, you may want to consider moving out while the work is complete. Alternatively, you could set up a makeshift kitchen – perhaps using your old cooker, sink and couple of units – in a different room. If you decide to stay, be prepared for dust, noise and disruption. If you decide to move out, make sure you visit the site regularly and are available to answer questions.

While knocking down internal walls and stripping out an old kitchen should take a few weeks, building an extension is likely to take three months or more. During this time, walls, floors and ceilings will be constructed, cables inserted for electrics and pipes for water.

8. Decorate the space

Once the walls plastered, you should be able to get a feel for how your new kitchen will look when it’s finished.

Now is the time to decorate the walls and ceiling. By painting before the units are installed, you’ll minimise the risk of drips and spills ruining your new kitchen. Opt for a wall colour that either complements or contrasts with your units. Although a plain white kitchen is timeless as it can easily be updated with accessories, consider going for a bolder wall colour, such as dark grey or petrol blue, for more of a style statement.

9. Install your new kitchen

Now it’s time for the most exciting part of the project – the installation of your new kitchen. Many kitchen companies offer an installation service for around £2,000, although most units can be fitted by a competent DIYer if you’re looking to cut costs. If you do choose this option, your extractor and cooker will need to be installed by an accredited electrician, and you may need a plumber to fit your sink and water-based appliances. Due to the cost of most worktops, it’s always best to ask a professional to fit these for you – mistakes can prove expensive.

10. Complete the tiling and flooring

You could tile, add a splashback to your walls or install your chosen flooring before fitting your units, but you’ll be paying for extra materials that won’t be seen once the kitchen is in place, so it makes sense to complete these tasks afterwards, instead.

Most competent DIYers will be able to tile or fit flooring themselves. Once the walls and floors are complete, it’s time to introduce the furniture, accessories and lighting, and start enjoying your brand-new kitchen.

Natural light

  • Introduce daylight from as many directions as possible — including rooflights and high-level or obscure glazed windows where privacy may be an issue.
  • Prioritise the best quality space – with the best daylight and nicest views – to the functions that are most important to you, usually living and dining.

For complete kitchen designs and costs, click here!

How to Design a Kitchen

How to design a kitchen? With the kitchen being such a high activity area of the house it’s worth finding out how to design a kitchen – even if you’re using a kitchen designer or architect. Knowing what’s involved in the process will help you design your own kitchen or give a detailed brief to your designer. Kitchen renovation cost depends on the design of your kitchen.

This page makes up part of the kitchen design layout series.

Step 1 – Pick Your Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturer

Now usually I’m always encouraging my site visitors to think in terms of how you want a space to function before making interior design or furniture choices but for kitchens it helps to know where you plan to get your kitchen cabinets from.

Most manufacturers have units in various standard sizes but always work with the kitchen cabinet dimensions that the manufacturer provides.

Even if you’re getting a bespoke kitchen made, getting in touch with a maker and finding out if they work in any standard sizes (eg using whole pieces of wood to avoid cutting which reduces waste, need less labor and therefore cost a bit less).

Step 2 – Create a Floor and Wall Plan

The second step of how to design a kitchen is to create a plan of your kitchen ‘space’ – the floor space and the wall space.

First decide if you’re working in feet and inches or m, cm and mm. For example in the United States and Canada kitchens are designed and sold in inches, in the UK and Australia it’s millimetres. Take the lead from the main measurement that your cabinet manufacturer uses.

Time to measure up! Take your time and be accurate and measure using the right measurement for your country. Measure floor dimensions, niches, windows, doors, where the water pipes (and gas supply if applicable) come up from the floor.

Now it’s time to draw up the plan.

You can do this on paper by following the instructions on draw floor plans but just for your kitchen rather than the whole house. Or you can use one of the online kitchen planners or software available (a bit more about that at the bottom of this page).

If you stick to the paper option, it’s a good idea to adjust the scale so that you fit the kitchen onto a sheet of paper rather than the whole house. The scale you can use depends on how big your kitchen is and how big your paper is.

Step 3 – Plan the Outline of Your Kitchen

It might be really obvious what shape your kitchen is going to be. If so, go ahead and have a look at the relevant page below. If not you can take a look at these for inspiration

Also take a look at the kitchen dimensions page that goes through some important kitchen planning guidelines.

Using your paper drawing, online kitchen planner or software plan in the outline of where you will place the base cabinets, wall cabinets, islands and tables in your kitchen in plan view (looking down from above). Don’t worry about where the appliances and fixtures will be placed just yet.

Other Considerations on Kitchen Shape

As well as the shapes above you could also consider incorporating curves in to the kitchen. This introduces challenges of being able to open adjacent cupboards and drawers at the same time without the doors or drawers banging into each other – but leaving a bit of space in between each set of units mitigates this.

If you have a bigger room to work with one of the main things to decide is whether the kitchen will occupy the whole room with an eating area open to the kitchen, or whether you want to try and maintain a bit of privacy to the cooking area – make it a bit like a bar or a coffee shop counter. If you have an accident with dinner you might want to be able to put it right without everyone looking at you!

Step 4 – Place the Appliances and Fixtures

Head on over to the kitchen triangle page.

Then come back here and draw in the the appliances and fixtures onto your plan

Step 5 – Plan Detailed Storage

Head on over to the kitchen storage ideas and kitchen storage solutions pages. Storage is a big part of how to design a kitchen.

You’re back? Phew – that’s kitchen storage done. At this stage you should have the wall plans filled out with all the fixtures you’re planning.

Step 6 – Lighting

At some stage I’ll be writing up a page on kitchen lighting design.

Your cabinet manufacturer may have some integrated lighting options.

Step 7 – Electrical

Plan the electrical points (outlets and switches for appliances) for your kitchen.

There are several options for general outlets.

If you have an appliance garage, a cupboard mounted microwave or want a TV in your kitchen think carefully about the best position for outlets.

Step 8 – Plan for other activities in the kitchen and surrounding spaces

What other activities will happen in your kitchen apart from those related to food? How about a sitting area with a TV or games console? Office type activities such as computer time and paying the bills are also popular in kitchen spaces.

Have a think about how your kitchen will relate to the spaces surrounding it. If it’s open plan to a dining space or living space what kind of view does the people in these areas get of the kitchen?

How to design a kitchen? Click here on how to design your main living space.

Master Electrician Education and Training Requirements

Master electricians require some formal education and extensive hands-on training. Learn about the education, job duties and licensure requirements to see if this is the right career for you. There are services that electrician Melbourne CBD that are not available on others.

They’re not called ‘master’ electricians for nothing: achieving this rank involves years of work experience and continuing education. You can begin on-the-job training without formal education in some states, while others do require a degree or certificate. No matter where you start, you’ll need to work for several years before you can become licensed as a master electrician.

Essential Information

Master electricians are often in charge of the installation and maintenance of electrical systems in homes, businesses and institutions. Most states license master electricians based on examinations, accrued experience and on-the-job training as a journeyman or apprentice electrician; some states lower the required years of experience for master electrician candidates who have vocational school training, an associate’s degree or a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering.

Educational Requirements for Master Electricians

Colleges and vocational schools offer certificate, degree and continuing education programs for those seeking a career as a master electrician. Maine mandates a 576-hour vocational training program for electricians, while postsecondary education is optional in other jurisdictions. Some states accept a trade school diploma, associate’s degree or engineering bachelor’s degree in lieu of some of the required practical experience. Most states require electricians to pass the same licensure exam, regardless of their educational background.

Classroom study in an electrical engineering bachelor’s degree program usually consists of applied mathematics, fundamentals of electricity, project management and architectural wiring. Vocational programs cover the National Electrical Code, cabling, OSHA regulations and local building codes.

Most master electricians take continuing education classes throughout their careers to keep their skills up-to-date and maintain licensure. Courses are typically offered by state-approved schools or vocational programs and may be held either online or on-campus.

Training Requirements

Training requirements for master electricians vary according to state and union regulations. In most areas, training begins in an approved apprenticeship program following graduation from a degree program. Some apprenticeship programs specialize in residential, commercial or new construction, while others may cover various general contracting jobs.

Apprenticeship programs usually run 3-7 years and typically divide hours between classroom and on-the-job training. Classroom study can include applied circuitry, electronic drafting, digital electronics and electrical instrumentation. Outside training is done under the supervision of a master electrician or journeyman at job sites and projects.

Following completion of an apprenticeship program, most states require that electricians spend time as journeymen before moving up to become master electricians. After earning a state journeyman license, electricians usually spend at least two years acquiring work hours before they can apply for a master electrician license.

Education options vary for those who wish to become master electricians, so often you can combine classroom learning and on-the-job training in a way that works best for you. Apprenticeships overseen by senior members of the profession are a common way to build up the years of experience needed to meet licensing requirements for journeyman and master electricians.

Save Time & Money Doing Your Own Basic Electric Wiring

Hiring a professional electrician Melbourne CBD can be very expensive and is often the reason why people try doing their own basic electric wiring themselves.

I have seen the good, the bad and the ugly results of these efforts and I have come to the conclusion that basic electrical wiring is not something anyone should do without proper guidance, tools and confidence.

It is so important that before attempting any of these basic electrical wiring projects that people are aware of how dangerous electricity is and how important safety is for you and for your family and family home.

90 percent of the time I recommend hiring a licensed electrician over doing your basic electrical wiring yourself. Not doing this will usually end up costing even more money than before and increase the risk of bringing your family into danger without even knowing your doing it.

But doing your own basic electric wiring really isn’t that hard to do if you “educate” yourself on the topic.

Licensed electricians had to learn the stuff themselves too. So as a ‘do it yourself person’ this isn’t different. There is no escape possible.

You will see that the more you read about it the easier it will become and the more confidence you will get.

Just to give you an idea, here are 3 questions I recently got from people just like you who tried doing their own electric wiring:

Question 1: I installed a grounding probe in your aquarium and every time anyone in the house turns on or off the lights, the fish jump. What’s going on?

A couple of suggestions:

1. (easiest) Pull out that grounding probe and return it from whence you purchased it.

2. Check the wiring on your outlet. You may actually have ‘Neutral’ instead of ‘Ground’.

3. Check the wiring throughout the rest of the house. There are some people out there that insist on doing their own home repairs, yet don’t understand basic electrical wiring.

Outlets are easy to check by getting a $7.95 outlet tester from the hardware store. Wired-in appliances, lights, heaters, etc. are tougher.

4. Check all your electrical fixtures to make sure they aren’t leaking some voltage to Ground.

Question 2: What is the NEC? Where can I get a copy?

The NEC is a model electrical code devised and published by the National Fire Protection Association, an insurance industry group. It’s revised every three years.

The 1993 version has been released. You can buy a copy at a decent bookstore, or by calling them directly at 800-344-3555.

The code exists in several versions. There’s the full text, which is fairly incomprehensible. There’s an abridged edition, which has only the sections likely to apply to most houses.

And there’s the NEC Handbook, which contains the “authorized commentary” on the code, as well as the full text. That’s the recommended version. Unfortunately, there’s no handbook for the abridged edition. And the full handbook is expensive — US$65 plus shipping and handling.

Question 3: Can I do my own wiring? Extra pointers?

In most places, homeowners are allowed to do their own wiring. In some, they’re not. Check with your local electrical inspector. Most places won’t permit you to do wiring on other’s homes for money without a license. Nor are you permitted to do wiring in “commercial” buildings.

Multiple dwellings (eg: duplexes)are usually considered “semi-commercial” or “commercial”. However, many jurisdictions will permit you to work on semi-commercial wiring if you’re supervised by a licensed electrician – if you can find one willing to supervise.

If you do your own wiring, an important point:

Do it NEAT and WELL! What you really want to aim for is a better job than an electrician will do. After all, it’s your own home, and it’s you or your family that might get killed if you make a mistake.

An electrician has time pressures, has the skills and knows the tricks of the trade to do a fast, safe job. In this FAQ we’ve consciously given a few recommendations that are in excess of code, because we feel that it’s reasonable, and will impress the inspector.

The inspector will know that you’re an amateur. You have to earn his trust. The best way of doing this is to spend your time doing as neat a job as possible. Don’t cut corners. Exceed specifications. Otherwise, the inspector may get extremely picky and fault you on the slightest transgressions.

Don’t try to hide anything from the inspector.

Use the proper tools. Ie: don’t use a bread knife to strip wires, or twist wires with your fingers. The inspector won’t like it, and the results won’t be that safe. And it takes longer. And you’re more likely to stick a hunk of 12ga wire through your hand that way.

Don’t handle house wire when it’s very cold (eg: below -10C or 16F). Thermoplastic house wire, particularly older types become very brittle.

As you can see, getting the right answers to your questions can make the work a lot easier.

You save time by doing it “the right way” from the first time and you save money because you won’t need to hire an electrician to either do the entire job or to fix your screw-ups.

In any case, no matter what you, be very careful when working on electricity! If needed cut down the entire power of your house just to be sure.

Keep It Safe,

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Nico De Baere is a licensed electrician with over 10 years of experience with home and industrial electric wiring. He is the author of the ebook Basic Electric Wiring which gives answers to 77 of the most ask questions on basic electric wiring. Visit his site now or click here [http://www.basicelectricwiring.com]

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Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Nico_De_Baere/8187

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/40054

5 Steps to Become a Licensed Master Electrician in the USA

Electricians are responsible for installing new electrical infrastructure, while keeping the wiring and equipment in existing buildings and power grids in top condition. Since modern society depends on electricity to operate, the electrical profession can be very rewarding. According to the US Department of Labor, the average annual wage for electricians in 2016 exceeded $56,000, and in specialized sectors such as oil and gas it is even possible to make a six-figure income. Melbourneemergencyelectricians.com.au is a company with years of experience providing high-quality after hours electrician Melbourne, wiring and cabling for Melbourne homes and businesses alike.

This article will provide an overview of the process required to obtain a master electrician license in the USA. Keep in mind this is a general overview, and there are specific requirements that vary by state.
Step 01 – Meet the Minimum Requirements to Receive Training

The electrical profession requires ample training to learn about its technical aspects and construction practices, while gaining awareness of the risks it involves. However, the following requirements must be met before embarking on the learning process:

  • A minimum age of 18.
  • Obtaining a high-school diploma.
  • Passing an aptitude test.
  • Passing a substance abuse test.

Step 02 – Receive Training as an Electrician Apprentice

If you meet the minimum requirements you can start receiving training to become an electrician, and generally there are two paths available, which take from 4 to 5 years.

Apprenticeship programs are normally managed by electrician trade unions or the government, and you are trained in the electrical trade by working under the supervision of licensed electricians. This is a “learning by doing” approach with relatively little classroom learning, where you start with basic tasks and are given more responsibility as you acquire knowledge and experience.

Trade schools provide an approach with a higher focus on classroom learning, where you are then required to work for a minimum number of hours that is specified by state.

Of course, a mixed approach is also possible: many electricians start in trade schools and then complete the required work-hours in apprenticeship programs. Keep in mind that there are many sub-fields in the electrical trade; for example, working on residential installations is very different from working on transmission and distribution lines. If you would like to specialize in one area, it is recommended that you look for an apprenticeship with a company that works in that business sector.
Step 03 – Become a Journeyman Electrician

Regardless of whether you entered an apprenticeship or attended a trade school, you will eventually become eligible to take the journeyman electrician test. The requirement is completing an apprenticeship, or the combination of a trade school program and a work-hour quota. You become a Journeyman Electrician after passing the test.

After becoming a Journeyman Electrician, you can legally work in residential, commercial, industrial and utility settings, either as an independent technician or as a contractor’s employee.

Although Journeyman Electricians hold a license, there is a higher qualification available: the Master Electrician License. If you earn one, your professional field broadens and you can also expect a higher income.
Step 04 – Obtain Experience as a Journeyman Electrician

Becoming a Master Electrician just after becoming a Journeyman is not possible, since there are work experience requirements before being eligible for the test. However, Journeyman Electricians have much more options than apprentices with regards to their work, and their license gives them independence.

An Electrical Engineer may also be eligible for the Master Electrician test, depending on the type and amount of experience he or she has accumulated.
Step 05 – Obtain a Master Electrician License

Once you are a highly experienced Journeyman Electrician, you become eligible to take the Master Electrician test. Keep in mind, however, that there may be state-specific requirements to meet. Master Electricians can charge more for their services due to their experience and qualifications, and are also allowed to become contractors, starting their own company and hiring other electricians.

Pink Slime in Swimming Pools

Pink Slime (and its “buddy” White water mold) is a newer problem facing swimming pool owners over the past 10 – 20 years. They are naturally occurring and are caused only by a lack of proper pool maintenance and water chemistry. In fact, even non-pool owners struggle with the pink slime in bathrooms, kitchens, and washrooms. Ever notice that pink ring around the basin? That’s pink slime. With our swimming pool removal Sydney service, we can bring back a garden or play area that once existed in your yard.

Let’s define what pink slime is. Pink slime is a naturally occurring bacterium (of the newly formed genus Methylobacterium). Pink Lime is NOT a form of Algae, it is animal not vegetable. It is pink- or red-pigmented and forms a heavy, protective slime coating which provides the organism with an unusually high level of protection. Pink slime consumes methanol (a waste gas) and it is oftentimes found WITH White Water Mold. This organism is very resilient and resistant against halogen-based (chlorine or bromine) as well as non-halogen sanitizers or germicides and can remain a contaminant even after treatment.

Although initially found in swimming pools being treated with biguanides (Baquacil, Soft Swim, Polyclear, etc.), it is now seen in any and all swimming pool environments. This is NOT a biguanide problem ONLY nor is it CAUSED by the use of biguanides.

The pink slime bacterium has an affinity for the matrix that exists on the surface of PVC plastics; it will attach itself to & inside of the matrix, allowing it to re-contaminate long after it appears that it has been seemingly “destroyed” (includes pool toys, floats, ladders, steps, fountains, automatic pool cleaner parts, skimmer baskets, weirs, directional fittings, garden hoses, etc.). Small quantities of pink slime can lead to a re-establishment of the problem. It is caused by improper water & pool maintenance, environmental factors and poor circulation. Pink slime prefers areas that are “dark” (not exposed to direct sunlight) & with “slow moving” water. In another industry, medical technology, this bacterium occurs regularly in laboratory tubin.

Look for pink slime under ladder treads, behind the skimmer weir, on the undersides skimmer baskets, pool directional returns, underwater pool light niches and light housings. If you find that the pool just isn’t holding chlorine, bromine, or even hydrogen peroxide used in biguanide treated pools, look for pink slime.

After regular tracking of homeowners swimming pools affected by pink slime, here are some commonalities:

Many, but not all, affected pools have “smaller (under) sized” cartridge filters. (i.e. using a 75 sq ft filter on a 24 ft Rnd aboveground pool or a 90 sq ft filter on a 15 x 30 inground pool).
Affected pools get 6 hours or less of direct sunlight on the pool surfaces.
Pool owners always leave the solar blanket on AND don’t chemically clean the blanket the recommended 2 times per year to remove the accumulated biofilm.
“Shocking” or oxidizing of the pool water is not done with the recommended label instructions. For example, rather than shocking the pool every week or two, that task is neglected because the water “looks fine.”
Rainy pool seasons see a dramatic rise in the cases of pink slime.
Customers regularly add fresh water from their tap without letting the hose-water run for a couple of minutes (the pink slime is already present in the garden hose and is transferred to the pool).
Pools with sand filters are not changing the sand every 2 to 3 years AND not chemically cleaning the filter sand 3 times a season (once every 6 to 8 weeks).
Newer observation: Most of the affected seem to use publicly treated drinking water. Pools filled with well water appear to be not as severely affected.
Affected pools are not as fastidiously maintained chemically (water balance, use of borate additives such as BioGuard Optimizer Plus or Proteam Supreme, regular shocking), as clean pools.

Another observation is that many water companies across the country, in partial response to “consumer calls” to “get rid of chlorine in the drinking water” are now using mono-chloramines to treat the water (over the past 15 to 20 years). Mono-chloramines do an essentially good job at treating pathogens in the drinking water, however, some of the non-pathogenic organisms may indeed be getting by. Unfortunately, there is only experiential or anecdotal evidence.

Prevention of “pink slime” is preferred over treatment. Follow these steps to help prevent pink slime:

  1. Physically brush & clean ALL Pool surfaces weekly, including ladder steps (especially underneath each step) & rails
  2. Expose ALL pool surfaces to as much sunlight as possible (sunlight & UV are natural oxidizers)
  3. Remove the lid from the skimmer to allow sunlight into the basket for several hours each day ** INGROUND POOLS MUST USE EXTREME CAUTION in doing this in order to avoid a person falling into or otherwise injuring themselves due to an open skimmer.
  4. Regularly add oxidizing chemicals into the skimmer to purge & clean the filtration lines of any bio-film (use extreme caution if doing this. Add chemicals slowly and remove ANY and ALL objects, including slow dissolving chlorine tablets or sticks, to avoid a potential chemical reaction such as explosion.
  5. When adding make-up water from the garden hose, allow the water to run for 2 to 3 minutes before putting the hose into the pool.
    Regularly clean pool toys & floats (use BioGuard Stow Away acting as a mildewcide)
  6. Regularly clean pool solar blanket (use BioGuard Stow Away)
  7. Chemically clean the pool filter every 4 to 6 weeks (use Strip Kwik, Kleen It or Soft Swim® Filter Cleaner). This is a very important step regardless of the filter type; sand, DE or Cartridge.
  8. Add regular Maintenance dosages of “Shock” & Algicide every 1 to 2 weeks as prescribed (3 to 4 weeks in bguanide pools).
  9. Use borate products such as BioGuard Optimizer Plus as a preventative measure (borates, when used properly at a rate of 50 – 80 ppm, allow the sanitizer to sanitize rather than sanitize and prevent algae growth).
  10. Run the filter a minimum of 12 hours daily to prevent “dead spots” in the pool.
  11. Remember to clean & rinse the brushes, hoses & vacuums that you use to clean the pool
  12. Leave as much of your pool equipment exposed to the sun (sunlight is a natural oxidizer)

Keep the water balanced at all times. Recheck after heavy usage or rain or large “top-offs” of new water. Water balance refers to Free Available Sanitizer level, pH, Total Alkalinity, Calcium Hardness.

Treatment of “pink slime” MUST BE QUICK AND TOTAL! DON’T SKIMP!

Clean all pool & affected surfaces as prescribed above.

Physically clean & remove all visible “pink slime”

Add an initial dosage of algicide to the pool

“Shock” the pool with a triple or quadruple dose

Run filter 24 hours daily until water is clear & halogen or peroxide levels are maintained at a “higher” level

Chemically clean the filter. Simple rinsing or backwashing of the filter will not remove the greases, oils & other accumulated contaminant from the filter and filter tank.

Have the pool water professionally tested & analyzed. Look for a pool company that knows what they are talking about and isn’t afraid to tell you the truth about problem.

Maintain Optimizer Plus (or other borate product) levels

Maintain good water balance of pH, Total Alkalinity & Calcium Hardness

The longer that you allow the pink slime to remain, the more difficult it will be to cure.

http://www.parpools.com

http://www.parpools.com/BioGuard-Pool-Chemicals.html

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Electrical Contractors and Outsourcing

Reliability, hiring and termination costs are persistent problems in the electrical contracting industry. Thorough screening, testing and interviewing techniques can help prevent reliability issues. The question is, do you have time to do all of these things and maintain focus on the job site? If you deal with Sphere Electrician Northcote you will be definitely satisfied with the quality of electrician’s work.

First review a list of functions your company must do to hire, maintain and retain an employee. Place a cost on each item using the time value of the person who must handle each separate item. For example and simplification, your office manager earns $15.00/hour and spends a half-hour a day dealing with employee issues. The time value is $7.50 to perform that function. Do this for each item listed below and come up with a daily total amount. Divide the total by 8 and determine if you are performing the functions cheaper than the staffing company can. Most electrical contractors can not because they are set up operationally, not administratively.

If you need a guideline to compare costs, most staffing companies charge a very small amount on top of each hour billed; use 5-7% as a general rule. Keep in mind this includes all labor burden costs including state/federal payroll taxes, worker’s com, liability insurance, payroll processing, etc (see list for the rest).

Outsourcing your human resources function eliminates the need for:

Placing job ads, handling phone calls from ads, processing job applications,checking references,performing criminal background checks, scheduling and paying for drug testing (if required), scheduling and conducting interviews, controlling Worker’s compensation insurance costs, maintaining liability insurance on employees, paying for office staff human resources training,
employee handbook development, safety program development, administration and injury reporting, payroll administration, mailing checks and setting up direct deposit accounts, payroll tax accounting – weekly payroll and annual mailing of W-2’s,
time tracking of field employees (electricians), offering and administering health and savings plans, worker’s compensation claims processing, processing unemployment claims, handling court ordered garnishments, paying attorney’s fees if a suit is filed against your company, addressing and processing NLRB issues, dealing with and paying for other post-employment obligations (wrongful termination suits, HIPPA notifications, etc)…and all of the other time consuming costs not mentioned above that chew into your bottom line!

What many electrical contractors do not take into consideration is the amount of time away from production and the amount of time their office staff devotes to recruiting, hiring and maintaining each employee on the payroll. This is a variable cost outsourcing labor solves.

Going back to the numbers, variable costs are costs that can be varied flexibly as conditions change; like the number of electricians you need to carry on your payroll at any given time. The point made here is that labor is a much more flexible resource than capital investment. Outsourcing labor provides you and your staff with freedom away from time consuming human resource functions. The time you save is better spent marketing, dealing with customers, suppliers, and focusing on the work at your project site.

Spend time to add up the time and cost of the listed functions involved in hiring and retaining electricians. Ask a staffing company to provide you with a cost breakdown of their hourly charge for each electrician’s skill level. Keep in mind staffing companies cover all the costs you would and charge a nominal account administration fee (the fee is normally much less than what companies spend on the list of HR functions). Compare the costs. Remember to consider the intangible benefits of reduced liability, time savings and increased freedom to focus on your customer.

Most contractors will agree that for any given electrical contracting project, outsourcing is cost effective. One key point that must be emphasized is outsourcing labor is not a “one size fits all” solution to controlling variable costs. Businesses that are comfortable where they are do not make good candidates. On the other hand, a business that wants to grow while maintaining tight control over variable costs makes an excellent fit.

We can never predict when an employee will decide to leave a company but, we can control what it will cost to replace that person using effective outsourcing strategies. Keeping the right mix of permanent and temporary employees is the key to controlling the priciest variable costs in our industry – labor. Outsourcing electricians allows you to control variable costs that are discussed in the next few paragraphs.

As you are aware, variable costs are the costs directly linked to the tempo of operations in electrical contracting. They are called variable because they vary with the size and workload of the business. This means that the more projects bid and won; the more labor, material, etc. costs will rise. The more labor costs rise, the more employee-related administration costs go up.

This, of course, is in contrast with fixed or overhead costs. These costs are those that are incurred regardless of whether or not your company works one or ten projects. These costs do not vary as the pace and size of your operations change unless a dramatic change is made. Variable costs are project specific, whereas, fixed costs are associated with the entire company. Office leases/mortgages have to be paid no matter what is produced or in what numbers. Hence rent or a mortgage is a fixed cost.

Consider a situation where you determine your electrical contracting service yields a 25% contribution margin. Your figure can then be used to determine whether variable costs for your project(s) can be reduced. You can choose to bump up the price of materials and/or reduce your labor costs.

Material pricing adjustments is the easy part. Labor costs are not. To attract and retain quality electricians, you must pay more than the competition, offer benefits and training.

Remember your bottom line or net profit is determined by how you decide to spend each penny of your contribution margin on fixed costs. We know you can control your fixed costs by deciding on how much to spend on vehicles, equipment, tools, phone service and all the rest of your business needs

But, what is the true cost to attract, hire, manage and retain a qualified electrician for a three month project and what is the cost to hire a permanent/full-time employee? You probably know the answer, the cost is the same. It is the replacement cost of the employee that will eat into your bottom line after you conduct all of your human resource or human capital management functions in-house. And what price do you place on the expenditure to bring someone new into your company? And what does it really cost to replace that person? The answer is simply the cost of time – your time, your staff’s time and all time removed from project related activities.

Learn more about outsourcing electricians [http://www.strategy-construction.com] at Strategy Construction’s Web Site.

Mike Widner is Director of Strategy Construction Company in Colorado Springs, CO. His background is in manpower management and human resources management in the construction industry. Over eight years, Mike performed several personnel realignment projects for the US Air Force and currently focuses on helping electrical contractors control labor costs using outsourcing techniques.

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Upgrading Old House Electrical Systems

If you own an older home and are thinking of upgrading your old house’s electrical system so that your house can become more energy efficient and save you money in the long run, then you may want to get some ideas from other people who have pursued such projects to see what is the best course of action. Every old house is different and you may need to do some custom work to make your situation work for you. There are many reasons why you may be considering upgrading the old electrical system in your home. Searching for the right commercial electrician Melbourne to find solutions to your electrical problems can be a daunting and painful task.

Many old homes have electrical systems that have a smaller power capacity than today’s more modern homes require. This can cause many problems in today’s electronic and gadget based world. For this reason many people look to expand the capacity of their home’s electrical system. Some of the symptoms of your home not having enough power are:

  • You frequently blow fuses or circuit breakers when you use too many appliances like vacuum cleaners, microwaves or space heaters
  • The lights dim when you turn on an appliance
  • You don’t have enough electrical receptacles for the number of appliances you use.
  • You may have many extension cords and adapters to fit more plugs

Think about the new appliances that have become widely available over the last 40 years or so. Vacuum cleaners, space heaters, air conditioners, microwaves, curling irons, hair dryers, big screen televisions, spas, computers etc… Many of these appliances draw significant amounts of electrical power. Some older homes only have 60- 100 amps of power available in their electrical panel. A typical space heater or microwave can draw 15-20 amps alone. Of course you also have to consider the power drawn by the lights, fridge, microwave, etc.

Now you can see why it may be necessary to upgrade your homes electrical system. Upgrading a homes electrical system isn’t an easy job and it’s not recommended to get involved with a project like this unless you are a professional and you know what you’re doing. This is not a job for your handyman, the brand new electrician or your friends brother who “knows how to do electrical work”. If you need to upgrade your electrical system, you should contact a licensed Electrical Contractor in your area. You should consult with them about your project and what you’re trying to accomplish with the new system in your home.

It is important to check the references of any company you are considering working with. Often reviews that can be found on various places on the internet can give some valuable insight about the local residential electricians you will choose to do the job. The cheapest contractor is not necessarily your best bet, neither is the most expensive, however remember that the old adage “you get what you pay for” is often true.

If you live in San Diego and need to upgrade your service, a quick internet search for “Electricians in San Diego” will give you a number of residential electricians to interview for the job. A qualified electrical contractor who has enough experience upgrading older homes can help you expand the power capacity of that old home so that you will have the capacity to power the more modern devices that require higher voltage draws.

Most people today have modern appliances such as dishwashers, washers, dryers, generators and other types of appliances that require more voltage than what some older types of homes have available. To have your old home support your newer and more modern appliances you will most likely have to consult your local electrician or electrical contractor and talk to them about what they can do to expand your home’s capacity. When they come to inspect the home, your local licensed electrician will look at the original electric system that is currently in place. Most of the time these old electrical systems that have been around since the 40s or even earlier are simply do not have the capacity to power the appliances we use everyday in our lives. The licensed electrician will most likely increase the power capacity of your old home by bringing in more power from the street. This is done by replacing your old panel and breaker boxes with a larger electric panel which can handle the requirement of your home. This can be a tricky process so it’s advised to have an experienced electrician handle the task for you to ensure that everything is done safely and to proper specifications.

Some things to be sure to ask are, will you be completely removing the old panel? How many circuits do I need for my home? Will you be using the correct size wires and breakers for every circuit? Will you be switching ALL of the power over? Will you be obtaining all the permits?

These are important questions to ask. It will show that you understand what you are talking about and prevent inexperienced or unscrupulous contractors from taking advantage and not providing you with everything you pay for. We have seen many instances where homeowners paid for what they thought was a professional and complete service upgrade, but they later learn (unfortunately) that the old service is buried inside a wall with the new panel put on top but not all the power switched over.

Your electrical contractor should we willing and able to handle all aspects of your electrical service upgrade including obtaining a permit and dealing with the city and the utility company. Once you have your new power system with an increased capacity, you’ll never have to worry about the safety of your home from an electrical perspective, blowing circuits or having the power you need for all of your appliances.

If you live in or near San Diego and want to speak with a qualified Electrician who specializes in older homes, visit Point Loma Electric. Electrician San Diego [http://pointlomaelectric.net/Upgrading_Your_Electrical_Service.html]

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