Make sure to keep yourself covered, if you do employ these money saving tips as suggested in the video above. And by covered I mean, employ yourself and independent building inspector to carry out a certified building inspection report, so that when the time comes to sell you property, your buyer will have the peace of mind knowing that even though you employed some cost saving methods to construct your home, you didn’t cut corners when it came to doing things properly.
The way a building inspector can help you to save money in the long run, is to inspect any work done by contractors or owner builders, who to the untrained eye may have done things incorrectly in order to save themselves some money on materials or processes.
If you are in the Melbourne area, then New Building Inspectors, are your first choice for a qualified builder to provide you with an independent building inspections report.
And once the house is complete you are going to want to celebrate. After all that blood sweat and tears, the new house is now ready to be enjoyed and what better way to do that than to entertain your friends and family.
After the hard work that everyone has contributed to the project it is only fitting that they get to join in on the celebrations too. You can invite the builders, bricklayers, landscapers, interior decorators – in fact invite anyone who has put in their best effort to make your new home the best it could be. You never know when you are going to want to have them come back and do some more work or fix up any mistakes that may eventuate after the warrranty period may be over. If you have returned kind with kind, you will be in a better negotiation spot to get them back to do the work for little or no cost to you.
Make sure you take all the hard work out of the event and hire a quality catering company to handle the food preparation and service of the guests. You know you don’t save much money by trying to do this yourself and it just adds to the enjoyment level when someone else is responsible for the cooking and looking after the mess once the party is over. Companies that can handle corporate events and cocktail parties, such as Chilterns Catering are the people you need to call first.
So whatever you decide to do, just make sure that everyone has a good time at your house warming party.
In keeping with most districts of healthcare, the marketplace has seen a boom in the construction of Behavioral Healthcare facilities. Contributing to this increase is the paradigm shift in the way society views mental illness. Society is placing a heavier value on the need to treat people with serious addictions such as alcohol, prescription and elicit drugs. A large percentage of people suffering from behavioral disorders are afflicted with both mental and addictive behaviors, and most will re-enter communities and either become contributors or violators.
These very specialized facilities do not typically yield the attention from today’s top healthcare designers and their quantity accounts for a small fraction of healthcare construction. However, Behavioral Healthcare projects are increasing in number and are being designed by some very prominent architectural firms such as Cannon Design and Architecture Plus. Many are creating state-of-the-art, award-winning contemporary facilities that defy what most of us believe Behavioral Healthcare design to be.
Changing the Way We Design Behavioral Healthcare Facilities
As with all good planners and designers, A+D (along with facility experts) are reviewing the direct needs of patient and staff while reflecting on how new medicine and modern design can foster patient healing rates, reduce environmental stress, and increase safety. This is changing the face of treatment and outcome by giving the practitioner more time to treat because they require less time and resources to “manage” disruptive patient populations.
The face of Behavioral Healthcare is quickly changing. No longer are these facilities designed to warehouse patients indefinitely. And society’s expectations have changed. Patients are often treated with the belief that they can return to their community and be a contributor to society. According to the National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems (NAPHS), depending on the severity of illness, the average length of stay in a Behavioral Healthcare facility is only 9.6 days.
What has changed?
Jaques Laurence Black, AIA, president and principal of New York City-based daSILVA Architects, states that there are two primary reasons for the shortened admission period:
1. Introduction of modern psychotropic drugs that greatly speed recovery
2. Pressures from insurance companies to get patients out of expensive modes of care
To meet these challenges, healthcare professionals are finding it very difficult to effectively treat patients within the walls of antiquated, rapidly deteriorating mental facilities. A great percentage of these facilities were built between 1908 and 1928 and were designed for psychiatric needs that were principled in the belief to “store” not to “rehabilitate.”
Also impacting the need for Behavioral Healthcare construction is the reluctance of acute-care facilities to provide mental health level services for psychiatric or addiction patients. They recognize that patient groups suffering from behavioral disorders have unique health needs, all of which need to be handled and treated only by very experienced healthcare professionals. This patient population also requires a heightened level of security. Self-harm and injuring staff and other patients are major concerns.
The Report of the Surgeon General: “Epidemiology of Mental Illness” also reports that within a given year about 20% of Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder and 5.4% suffer from a serious mental illness (SMI ) – defined as bipolar, panic, obsessive-compulsive, personality, and depression disorders and schizophrenia. It is also believed 6% of Americans suffer from addiction disorders, a statistic that is separate from individuals who suffer from both mental and addiction disorders. Within a given year it is believed that over one-quarter of America’s population warrants levels of mental clinical care. Even if these statistics were cut in half, it cannot be denied as a serious societal issue.
With a growing population, effectively designing in accordance with such measures is at the heart of public health.
Understanding the Complexity of Behavioral Healthcare Design
Therefore, like Corrections, leading planners and designers specializing in Behavioral Healthcare are delving deeper to better understand the complexity of issues and to be the activist to design facilities that promote treatment and healing – and a safer community.
The following is a list of key design variables that are being studied and implemented:
1. Right Sizing
2. Humanizing Materials and Color
3. Staff-Focused Amenities and Happiness
4. Security and Safety
5. Therapeutic Design Tenants
Today’s Behavioral Healthcare facilities are often one-story single buildings within a campus size. Often debated by Clients due to costs, this design preference is driven by the demand for natural light, window views to nature for all patient areas, and outdoor open-air gardens “wrapped” within. All of this provides soothing qualities to the patient, reduces their anxieties, counteracts disruptive conduct and helps to reduce staff stress.
“When you look at the program mix in these buildings, there’s a high demand for perimeter because there are a lot of rooms that need natural light. Offices, classrooms, dining areas, community rooms, and patient rooms all demand natural light, so you end up with a tremendous amount of exterior wall, and it forces the building to have a very large footprint.” – James Kent Muirhead, AIA, associate principal at Cannon Design in Baltimore
These design principles are also believed to improve staff work conditions. Unlike a multi-story complex, at any moment staff can walk outdoors and access nature, free from visual barriers, and within a building that more accurately reflects building types that both patients and staff would encounter in their communities.
In addition to right-sizing for the overall building footprint, is right-sizing for internal patient and staff support area. Similar to the move we have seen in Corrections to de-centralize support spaces, Behavioral Healthcare is moving to decentralized nursing/patient units called “neighborhoods.” With mental health facilities there is a large concern with distances and space adjacencies in relation to the patient room and patient support areas such as treatment and social spaces. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, Troy, NY, advocates neighborhoods that average 24-30 beds arranged in sub-clusters, called “houses”, of 8-10 beds. Thus, each neighborhood consists of three houses. Often these layouts will include a common area where patients congregate and socialize, with a separate quiet room so patients can elect to avoid active, crowded areas. In addition Pitts states, “There’s a move away from central dining facilities. So, while facilities will still have a central kitchen, it’s a whole lot easier moving food than it is patients.” However, it is important for the facility to mimic normal outside daily life routines, so patients are encouraged to frequently leave their neighborhoods to attend treatment sessions, and outdoor courtyards.
Humanizing Materials & Color
In all facilities that play a role in rehabilitation, design strives to create spaces that humanize, calm, and relax. Behavioral Healthcare patients need to feel that they are in familiar surroundings; therefore, the architectural vocabulary should feel comfortable and normal. Since these facilities are about rehabilitation (when possible) and encouraging patients to merge back into society, the facility should feel like an extension of the community. Their spaces should reflect the nature and architecture of the surrounding region and thus so, no two facilities should look too much alike.
“Our approach to designing these facilities is to view the facility as an extension of the community where patients will end up when they’re released. Interior finishes also depend on geography because you want to replicate the environment patients are used to. You want to de-stigmatize the facility as much as possible.” – Tim Rommel, AIA, ACHA, OAA, principal with Cannon Design in Buffalo, NY.
Therefore, materials and colors within these spaces want to feel familiar to one’s region and everyday life. To soothe the psyche and rehabilitate, they want to feel soft and comfortable, yet visually stimulating. An interior that is overly neutral or hard in appearance is not appropriate. Materials should reduce noise, and colors should lift the spirit. This can help to create an environment in which the patient can learn, socialize, and be productive while easing anxieties, delivering dignity, and modifying behavior. As stated previously, behavioral studies advise the use of softer interior materials-like carpeting, wood doors and tile. Doing so translates directly to both patient and staff well-being, particularly staff safety, and makes for a nicer place to work. In addition, staff have more resources to “treat” instead of manage heated situations. When staff experiences are eased and satisfied, morale is boosted and life-saving rules and policies are more likely to be enforced.
Staff-Focused Amenities & Happiness
While reducing staff stress and fatigue through a healing supportive environment seems like an obvious goal, there are relatively few studies that have dealt with this issue in any detail. More attention has been given to patient outcomes. However, many leading hospitals that have adopted therapeutic tenants into their newly built environments have seen vast improvement through their “business matrixes” and financial reporting.
In one example, the Mayo Clinic, a national leader in implementing healing design in its facilities, has reported a reduction of nursing turnover from a national annual average of 20% to an annual 3%-4%. In another example, when Bronson Methodist Hospital incorporated evidence-based design into its new 343-bed hospital, they cited their 19%-20% nurse turnover rate dramatically dropped to 5%.
Now, both the Mayo Clinic and Bronson Methodist Hospital have had to initiate a waiting list for nursing staff seeking positions. This converts to better-trained and qualified staff, and a reduced error rate. Therefore, more health facilities are investing in staff support areas such as lounges, changing rooms, and temporary sleep rooms. Within these staff spaces and in the hospital throughout, facilities are also recognizing the need for upgrade materials, better day lighting, and an interesting use of color: One soon realizes that the need of patients and staff are interwoven, each impacting positively or negatively the other.
Security & Safety
Without debate, self harm and harm to staff is one of the biggest concerns mental health facilities manage. Often the biggest safety and security concern is the damage patients can do to themselves. “There are three rules I had drummed in me,” says Mark Hanchar; Director of Preconstruction Services for Gilbane Building Company, Providence, R.I. “First, there can’t be any way for people to hang themselves. Second, there can be no way for them to create weapons. Third, you must eliminate things that can be thrown.” Hanchar says that the typical facility is, “a hospital with medium-security prison construction.” This means shatter proof glass, solid surface countertops (laminate can be peeled apart), stainless steel toilets and sinks (porcelain can shatter), push pull door latches and furniture that cannot be pulled apart and used as a weapon. These are just to name a few.
Additionally, removing barriers between patients and nursing staff is a safety consideration. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, says what may be counter-intuitive for safety precautions, “Glass walls around nursing stations just aggravate the patients.” Removing glass or lowering it at nursing stations so patients can feel a more human connection to nurses often calms patients. There is also discussion of removing nursing stations altogether; decentralizing and placing these care needs directly into the clinical neighborhoods and community spaces. Pitt says, “The view is that [nursing staff] need to be out there treating their patients.”
Therapeutic Design Tenants
As medicine is increasingly moving towards “evidence-based” medicine, where clinical choices are informed by research, healthcare design is increasingly guided by research linking the physical environment directly to patient and staff outcomes. Research teams from Texas A&M and Georgia Tech sifted through thousands of scientific articles and identified more than 600 – most from top peer-reviewed journals – to quantify how hospital design can play a direct role in clinical outcomes.
The research teams uncovered a large body of evidence that demonstrates design features such as increased day-lighting, access to nature, reduced noise and increased patient control helped reduce stress, improve sleep, and increase staff effectiveness – all of which promote healing rates and save facilities cost. Therefore, improving physical settings can be a critical tool in making hospitals more safe, more healing, and better places to work.
Today’s therapeutic spaces have been defined to excel in 3 categories:
1. Provide clinical excellence in the treatment of the body
2. Meet the psycho-social needs of patients, families, and staff
3. Produce measurable positive patient outcomes and staff effectiveness
Considering the cost of treating mental illness, which is exceedingly high, and wanting facilities to have effective outcomes, a further practice of incorporating therapeutic design is increasing. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIM H) approximated in 2008 that serious mental illnesses (SMI ), costs the nation $193 billion annually in lost wages. The indirect costs are impossible to estimate.
The estimated direct cost to clinically treat is approximately $70 billion annually and another $12 billion spent towards substance abuse disorders. In addition to the increased need of care and the boom in Behavioral Healthcare construction, it becomes an obligation to make certain that we as facility managers, architects, designers and manufacturers therapeutically plan and design these facilities.
Notably, in 2004, “The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital for the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity,” published by Roger Ulrich P.H.D., of Texas A&M University, was released. In a culmination of evidence-based research, research teams found five design principles that contributed significantly to achieving therapeutic design goals.
The report indicates five key factors that are essential for the psychological well-being of patients, families and staff, including:
1. Access to Nature
2. Provide Positive Distractions
3. Provide Social Support Spaces
4. Give a Sense of Control
5. Reduce or eliminate environmental stress
Access to Nature
Studies indicate that nature might have the most powerful impact to help patient outcomes and staff effectiveness. Nature can be literal or figurative – natural light, water walls, views to nature, large prints of botanicals and geography, materials that indicate nature and most importantly, stimulating color that evokes nature. Several studies strongly support that access to nature such as day-lighting and appropriate colorations can improve health outcomes such as depression, agitation, sleep, circadian rest-activity rhythms, as well as length of stay in demented patients and persons with seasonal affective disorders (SAD).
These and related studies continue to affirm the powerful impact of natural elements on patient recovery and stress reduction. Thus, it is clear that interior designs which integrate natural elements can create a more relaxing, therapeutic environment that benefits both patients and staff.
These are a small set of environmental features that provide the patient and family a positive diversion from “the difficult” and, in doing so, also negate an institutional feel. These can be views to nature, water walls, artwork, super imposed graphics, sculpture, music – and ideally all of these want to be focused on nature and, when applicable, an interesting use of color. Therapeutic environments that provide such patient-centered features can empower patients and families, but also increase their confidence in the facility and staff. This helps with open lines of communication between patient and caregiver.
Social Support Spaces
These are spaces designed partially for the patient but mainly for the comfort and socialization of family members and friends of the patient; therefore, family lounges, resource libraries, chapels, sleep rooms and consult rooms all play a role. When family and friends play a key role in a patient’s healing, these spaces encourage families to play an active role in the rehabilitation process.
Sense of Control
In times when patients and family feel out of control, it is very healing for the facility design and staff to provide it back when appropriate. Although, this cannot always be done suitably in mental healthcare facilities. However, when applicable, these design features include optional lighting choices, architectural way-finding, resource libraries, enhanced food menus, private patient rooms and
optional areas to reside in. A few well-appointed studies in psychiatric wards and nursing homes have found that optional choices of moveable seating in dining areas enhanced social interaction and improved eating disorders. When patients feel partially in control of their healing program and that the building features are focused to them, an increased confidence of the quality of care enters and tensions lower.
As with all therapeutic design, this allows the caregiver to use their resources healing in lieu of “managing” patient populations.
Reduce or Eliminate Environmental Stress
Noise level measurements show that hospital wards can be excessively noisy places resulting in negative effects on patient outcomes. The continuous background noise produced by medical equipment and staff voices often exceeds the level of a busy restaurant. Peak noise periods (shift changes, equipment alarms, paging systems, telephones, bedrails, trolleys, and certain medical equipment like portable xray machines are comparable to walking next to a busy highway when a motorcycle or large truck passes.
Several studies have focused on infants in NIC Us, finding that higher noise levels, for example, decrease oxygen saturation (increasing need for oxygen support therapy), elevate blood pressure, increase heart and respiration rate, and worsen sleep. Research on adults and children show that noise is a major cause of awakening and sleep loss.
Architectural design can assist in overcoming these types of obstacle. Whether you are designing a luxury home or care facility, there are certain design aspects that need to be considered. Overall comfort and a sense of peace, are able to be enhanced by a well designed environment. Considering Melbourne designed homes and prestige premises, one could draw the conclusion that choosing the right home builder is going to make all the difference.
In addition to worsening sleep, there is strong evidence that noise increases stress in adult patients, for example, heightening blood pressure and heart rate. Environmental surfaces in hospitals are usually hard and sound-reflecting, not sound-absorbing causing noise to travel down corridors and into patient rooms. Sounds tend to echo, overlap and linger longer.
Interventions that reduce noise have been found to improve sleep and reduce patient stress. Of these, the environmental or design interventions such as changing to sound-absorbing ceiling tiles, are more successful than organizational interventions like establishing “quiet hours.” White noise or noise reducing electronic devices can also help quieten a noisy environment.
Conclusion and Additional Information
The information contained in this excerpted report is intended as a guide for architects, specifiers, designers, facility planners, medical directors, procurers, psychologists and social workers which have a stake in providing improved facilities for behavioral healthcare patients. It is a portion of a report entitled “The Contributions of Color” authored by Tara Hill, of Little Fish Think Tank. Ms. Hill was commissioned by Norix Group Inc., in 2010 to research the role color plays in the safe operation of correctional facilities and behavioral health centers. More in-depth information specifically about the psychological influence of color and behavioral healthcare facility design can be found by reading the full report.
About the Author
Tara Hill is a full-scope, state registered interior designer, and the founder and principle of Little Fish Think Tank. Before founding Little Fish, Ms. Hill was an Associate + Senior Designer at HOK, and the Director of Interiors at Stanley, Beaman & Sears. She has implemented award-winning, innovative design solutions for commercial and institutional interiors.
Ms. Hill also has significant experience regarding the science and theory of color, both as a design tool and a promoter of healing. She has conducted extensive research in evidence-based design regarding color and its profound impact on the human spirit.
Prior to her work with Norix, Ms. Hill developed the Healing Colors Collection for Corian® solid surfaces, by Dupont®, for the healthcare environment. http://www.golittlefish.net
About Norix Group Inc.
For over 25 years, Norix has offered the most complete line of correctional furniture, for use throughout correctional facilities. With their extensive experience in providing secure furniture for prisons and jails, Norix is a trusted resource for every corrections application.
Norix also offers a vast array of furniture for several industries including behavioral healthcare, commercial, higher education, public safety, GSA and shelters. All furniture is designed for safety, security and extreme durability. Norix intensive-use furniture is extraordinary by design, surpassing industry standards for strength, safety and long-term performance.
In today’s DIY era, it can be tempting to try and save a few dollars by attempting electrical projects yourself or with the help of the local handyman. Unless you are simply plugging in a surge protector to valuable electronics, or swapping a light bulb, opting for a licensed, professional electrician is in your best interest. Emergency electrician Brisbane can service any electrical need, whether it is the slightest or the most delicate electrical breakdown.
Diagnosis and Repair
Don’t let electrical issues leave you sitting around scratching your head. Our licensed electricians can save you time, money and aggravation, diagnosing even the toughest electrical issues. What’s more, our professional repairs are performed correctly and safely the first time, getting your life back on track.
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Don’t let your home’s electrical system become the weakest link, preventing you from enjoying today’s rapidly advancing technology. Contact Mr. Electric today to learn more about how updating your home’s aging electrical system can make your home more user-friendly.
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Martin Smith is the director of EPHG who can arrange to get a 24 hour emergency electrician to you immediately or within a reasonable amount of time. As well as emergency electricians, we also have a fully qualified emergency plumber, heating engineer and a 24 hour gas engineer. Before you decide to book us then please meet the director of the company and watch the video or just give us a call on the above number 07720247247. Book for your electrician Brisbane Southside for any electrical problems on your home.
About our 24 hour electricians
Wonder the type of jobs that our 24 our electricians do then please note we are specials in emergencies from stoping your house alarm from going off, getting your electricity back on when your board is tripping due to an electical fault.
When you get an electrical fault and your board is tripping, our aim is to get your consumers board back on and working again however these target may not be met due to safety reason but what we do should be reasonable.
We do many services such an emergency electrician, emergency plumber, emergency heating engineer and emergency gas engineer which include a boiler repair service for the whole of the uk.
24 hour electrician
As we specialise in a 24 hour electrical service, this means it does matter if you call us at 02:00 early hours of the morning or 14:00 in the middle of the day we will still come out to you regardless of the time, however please note that the rates will reflect the time we come out to you as a 24 hour electrician.
A midnight electrician the time may be different to getting to you in the day as there will not be as many engineers on call but what we can say is that we can get a 24 hour midnight electrician to you within 2 hours but try to aim for a 30 minute response time.
An emergency electrician could meen a 24 hour electrician but the difference is that an emergency means that we respond immediately and within a reasonable time due to the nature of the problem.
Please note when calling a 24 hour emergency electrician, we are large company that requires a deposit each and everytime we send a 24 hour electrician out where ever it is in the middle of the day, at midnight or any time. The deposit needs to be paid before the booking is complete and we organise then electrician to call out.
Please note when using our emergency electrical service that we are a large company, the engineer may not be local but in most cases they are as we also have out of area electricians. Our priory is to get an 24 hour emergency electrician to you as quick as possible and within a reasonable time.
Electrical Boiler Fault
If you have an electrical boiler fault and your looking for an emergency electrician, please note that it may not be an electrician you are looking for as an electrician can only work between the consumers unit and the switch spur, mains plug or the electrical point leading to the boiler and you may require an emergency heating engineer that is gas safe. For more information on electrical boiler faults please see our article and video.
Are you looking for an electrician plumber or just an electrician and a plumber. These types of issues of most requiring an emergency electrician and an emergency plumber when there is water pouring over the electric but please note when calling our service the electrician we send out will most likely not be a qualified plumber and a plumbing engineer may have to come out seperately.
Please note if you liked the video above and would like to see more alike then click into our area page below and start searching through as we have a video on each page dedicated to each area.
Leather used in car and vehicle interiors continues to be sourced from the hide produced as a by-product of processed meat. Advanced meat processing techniques and a rise in vegetarianism witnesses across the globe are factoring the dip in production of leather from animal hides & pelts. Leather car interiors are gradually losing their momentum in the global automotive industry as more and more automakers are opting for synthetic fabrics as alternative for leather materials. A recent study conducted by Future Market Insights projects that between 2016 and 2026, global revenues amassed from sales of automotive interior leather will grow steadily, registering a modest CAGR of 5.2%. Leather protector spray prevents water, salt and other elements from penetrating the surface where they can be wiped away instead of soaking into the leather’s pores and fibers
Apropos the study, surging preference of global automobile manufacturers to cheap and easily available synthetic fabrics as substitute for leather will continue to be a major growth inhibitor for global automotive interior leather market. Nevertheless, growing preference to synthetic leather will continue to help the market gain a balanced growth over the forecast period. According to Future Market Insights, the global market for automotive interior leather, which is presently valued to be an estimated US$ 25.6 billion, is expected to reach US$ 42.5 billion value by the end of 2026. On the basis of materials, global consumption of synthetic leather over genuine leather will continue to gain traction, accounting for nearly 60% share of global revenues through 2026.
Higher Demand for Leather in Upholstery of Vehicle Interiors
According to the study, the presence of leather materials in the interior of an automobile will continue to be majorly concentrated in its upholstery. Consumers and vehicle owners will continue preferring leather for their car interior upholsteries. In 2016, nearly 670,000 thousand square meters of leather in the world was used for automotive interiors. About 30% of this was accounted by upholstery applications, followed by headliners, which procured over US$ 5 billion global revenues in 2016. Likewise, global revenues accounted by sales of automotive interior leather in production of floor & trunk carpet will also incur a healthy growth, increasing steadily at an estimated 5% CAGR over the forecast tenure.
Leather Remains Prevalent in Interiors of Compact & Mid-Sized SUVs
Passenger cars such as SUVs and sedans continue to be the largest end-user vehicle of automotive interior leather. Passenger car manufacturers from around the world will continue to promote the use of leather over other materials. In 2016, more than 500,000 thousand square meters of automotive interior leather was consumed for interiors of passenger cars. Global revenues accrued from sales of leather in manufacturing interiors of compact and mid-size SUV are expected to grow at a healthy CAGR of more than 5% through 2026. On the other hand, revenues accounted by light-weight commercial vehicles (LCVs) and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) are anticipated to increase at a sluggish rate.
GST AutoLeather Inc., Leather Resource of America, Inc., and Eagle Ottawa Inc. are US-based manufacturers of automotive interior leather, which are also recognised as industry leaders in the global market. Owing to such companies, North America will continue to hold more than 15% share of the global automotive interior leather market throughout the forecast period. Western Europe is also expected to be observed as dominant region, primarily for the presence of leading automotive interior leather manufacturers such as Scottish Leather Group Limited, WOLLSDORF LEDER SCHMIDT & Co. GmbH, Bader GmbH & Co. KG, BOXMARK Leather GmbH & Co KG, and Elmo Sweden. With more than 35% revenue share and key contribution from Malaysia’s D. K. Leather Corporation, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) region will remain the most-lucrative and largest region in the global market for automotive interior leather. Inquire now for best leather in the market.
Queries regarding the research findings can be addressed to Future Market Insights’ analysts at [email protected]
Car paint protection Adelaide for cars is the best possible kind of finish for your vehicle s area since not simply does it keep the shine of your paintwork gleaming as though it has simply left the showroom, yet it is additionally self-cleaning.
The procedure behind it is fascinating and is based on something from nature. It is called the lotus result due to the fact that it was discovered that the lotus flower has self-cleaning residential properties on its leaves. This additionally puts on some other plants such as walking cane, nasturtium and irritable pear. On top of that, some pests such as certain butterflies and dragonflies have the same ability.
When Was The Lotus Effect Discovered?
Scientists initially started to research this phenomenon in 1964, and the work was additional created by Barthlott and Ehler in 1977; it was they which first coined the term the lotus effect. The fallen leaves of the lotus floral have a very higher water repellent residential property which is called super-hydrophobicity. When it rainfalls, water droplets roll across the fallen leaves and pick up dirt, eliminating it from the surface, hence allowing the plant to stay tidy and the fallen leaves to do their function of photosynthesis to make it possible for the plant to increase.
The higher area strain of a water droplet suggests that it tends to decrease its area in an undertaking to obtain a form which is as near a ball as feasible. On making contact with a surface area, forces of adhesion cause the surface area to come to be damp. The area could end up being partially wet or totally moist and this will depend upon the liquid stress of the water droplet and the adhesive attributes of the surface area.
The less of the water droplet that is in contact with the surface, the greater that surface s hydrophobicity is said to be. This hydrophobicity could be gauged by the call angle of the water droplet on the surface area. The reduced the contact angle, the reduced the hydrophobicity and vice versa. If a get in touch with angle on a specific surface area is less than 90 levels the area is described as hydrophilic. Higher than 90 levels it is hydrophobic.
Some plants have a call angle of as high as 160 levels meanings that only about 2 % of the water droplet touches with the surface. In the case of lotus leaves, the contact angle is as higher as 170 degrees. These surfaces are claimed to be super-hydrophobic. The area of a water droplet in contact with a lotus leaf could be as litlle as 0.6 %.
How Does Gunk Acquire Cleaned Off The Surface area?
When dust gets on to such an area the amount of attachment between the filth fragment and the surface area is far less compared to on many others surface areas. When a water droplet rolls throughout the surface area the quantity of attachment between the surface and the dust particle is much less than that between the filth bit and the droplet, so the dust bit is picked up by the droplet and lugged away causing automatic cleansing of the area. This only works because of the high degree of surface area tension of a water droplet and does not work in the exact same way with natural solvents.
Fundamentally, that is just how it works for the lotus leaf. Specifically the very same principle is used in nano paint innovation for car paint protection Melbourne.
Just how Does Nano Paint Protection Work For Automobiles?
Nano innovation has actually advanced to the point whereby a difficult safety ceramic finish can be put on the lacquered completed surface area of the vehicle s paintwork when it leaves the factory. The lacquered area is not resistant to bird droppings, UV, or chemical etching and could be quickly ruined or scraped. When this happens the only option is to brighten off the scratch marks or swirl marks thereby lessening the thickness of the manufacturing facility paint layer. With time this implies that eventually a respray will be needed.
Many people will certainly utilize a wax gloss or a polymer paint sealer on the paintwork, but this still leaves the paint surface prone to damage from square one, bird droppings etc, as these can permeate the gloss or sealer.
Exactly what Is the Solution?
The response is to use a challenging nano paint innovation layer to the surface of the paintwork. The covering is far much less vulnerable to harm compared to other surface coatings, however also if swirl marks or various other damage need to occur the finish itself can be brightened off and re-applied. This indicates that the manufacturing facility paintwork will not be harmed and will maintain its thickness and sparkle.
Essentially nano technology copies the results found in attributes in a basic way and super-hydrophobic coatings have been made use of on guy made surface areas for a considerable number of years. One such application is self-cleaning glass made use of for windows, yet they have been used in different other applications. As an example, super-hydrophobic finishes incorporating Teflon particles have actually been made use of on clinical diagnostic slides.
The same technology has actually been used for things as unique as roof covering floor tiles and natural leather furniture. It can be utilized on satellite tv meals, for instance, in order to lower the possibility of rainfall discolor and to counteract any type of accumulate of ice and snow on the antenna.
It has even been utilized for tree growing. The Groasis Waterboxx is a device designed for planting tiny trees in areas of severe drought which makes it possible for the young sapling to have sufficient water reach its root systems until the root systems crash much good enough into the ground to reach water. The Waterboxx can then be gotten rid of and utilized once again in other places. Nano innovation makes it possible for the Waterboxx to gather condensation and condensation and channel it down to the root systems of the sapling even in areas of desert.
In order to protect the paintwork of your auto and preserve that fresh out of the showroom appearance with none of the effort, nano paint protection is the answer for the discerning motorist. You will certainly never have to fret about scrape marks or bird droppings, and your car will simply require a fast rinse to eliminate any type of filth. It doesn’t concern whether your vehicle is brand new, or numerous years old; we can keep it the method it is, or recover it to the means it was.
You will certainly likewise be able to make fun of your next-door neighbors cleaning and brightening every Sunday early morning! Visit us for paintwork job of your car.
A market study ” Global Car Polishing Machine Market ” examines the performance of the Car Polishing Machine market Size 2017. It encloses an in-depth Research of the Car Polishing Machine market state and the competitive landscape globally. This report analyzes the potential of Car Polishing Machine market in the present and the future prospects from various angles in detail.
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The Global Car Polishing Machine Market 2017 report includes Car Polishing Machine market Size, Revenue, market Share, Car Polishing Machine industry volume, market Trends, Car Polishing Machine Growth aspects. A wide range of applications, Utilization ratio, Supply and demand analysis are also consist in the report.It shows manufacturing capacity, Car Polishing Machine Price during the Forecast period from 2017 to 2022.
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Electrical Car Polishing Machine
Pneumatic Car Polishing Machine
Car Polishing Machine Market : Application Analysis
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Nano paint protection for autos is the very best feasible kind of surface for your motor vehicle s surface considering that not simply does it keep the shine of your paintwork gleaming as though it has actually just left the showroom, yet it is additionally self-cleaning. The 3M paint protection Sydney will keep your vehicle looking newer longer- without changing the design features or color- by protecting vulnerable areas such as front bumpers, hoods, side mirrors, door handle cavities, door edges, rocker panels, and rear fender panels.
The procedure behind it is exciting and is based on something from nature. It is called the lotus result given that it was uncovered that the lotus flower has self-cleaning homes on its leaves. This likewise puts on a few other plants such as cane, nasturtium and prickly pear. Furthermore, some pests such as specific butterflies and dragonflies have the exact same capability.
When Was The Lotus Result Found?
Researchers first began to learn this sensation in 1964, and the work was more established by Barthlott and Ehler in 1977; it was they who initially coined the term the lotus result. The leaves of the lotus flower have an incredibly higher water repellent property which is called super-hydrophobicity. When it rainfalls, water droplets roll across the fallen leaves and pick up dirt, eliminating it from the surface area, hence allowing the plant to stay clean and the fallen leaves to do their feature of photosynthesis to allow the plant to expand.
The higher surface area tension of a water droplet suggests that it has a tendency to decrease its area in an undertaking to achieve a shape which is as close to a sphere as feasible. On reaching a surface area, forces of bond cause the surface to come to be damp. The area may become partially wet or completely wet and this will certainly rely on the liquid tension of the water droplet and the sticky nature of the surface area.
The less of the water droplet that is in contact with the surface, the higher that surface area s hydrophobicity is stated to be. This hydrophobicity could be determined by the call angle of the water droplet on the surface. The lower the contact angle, the lesser the hydrophobicity and the other way around. If a contact angle on a particular area is much less than 90 levels the surface is described as hydrophilic. Greater than 90 degrees it is hydrophobic.
Some plants have a get in touch with angle of as high as 160 levels therefores that just around 2 % of the water droplet is in contact with the surface area. In the case of lotus leaves, the get in touch with angle is as higher as 170 levels. These areas are stated to be super-hydrophobic. The surface of a water droplet touching a lotus fallen leave might be as litlle as 0.6 %.
Just how Does Dust Acquire Cleaned Off The Surface area?
When gunk jumps on to such an area the quantity of attachment in between the gunk particle and the area is much less than on other areas. When a water droplet rolls throughout the area the amount of attachment in between the area and the gunk bit is much less than that between the dust particle and the droplet, so the dust particle is picked up by the droplet and lugged away resulting in automated cleansing of the area. This only works because of the higher degree of area stress of a water droplet and does not function in the exact same method with organic solvents.
Fundamentally, that is exactly how it works for the lotus leaf. Specifically the same principle is utilized in nano paint technology for car paint protection Melbourne.
How Does Nano Paint Protection Work For Vehicles?
Nano technology has actually progressed to the factor where a tough safety ceramic layer could be put on the lacquered completed surface of the auto s paintwork when it leaves the factory. The lacquered surface is not immune to bird droppings, UV, or chemical etching and could be quickly ruined or damaged. When this happens the only option is to polish off the scrape marks or swirl marks thus lowering the thickness of the factory paint layer. With time this indicates that inevitably a respray will certainly be needed.
Lots of people will certainly make use of a wax polish or a polymer paint sealer on the paintwork, yet this still leaves the paint surface vulnerable to damages from scratching, bird droppings and so forth, as these could penetrate the gloss or sealer.
Exactly what Is the Solution?
The solution is to use a challenging nano paint technology finish to the surface of the paintwork. The finish is much less vulnerable to damages than any other surface layers, yet even if swirl marks or various other damages should take place the layer itself could be polished off and re-applied. This implies that the manufacturing plant paintwork will not be ruined and will certainly maintain its density and luster.
Essentially nano innovation copies the impacts discovered in nature in a basic way and super-hydrophobic finishes have actually been used on guy made areas for a considerable variety of years. One such application is self-cleaning glass made use of for home windows, but they have actually been made use of in various many others applications additionally. Super-hydrophobic coverings integrating Teflon bits have been used on med analysis slides.
The exact same technology has actually been utilized for things as varied as roofing system ceramic tiles and leather-made furniture. It could be used on satellite television recipes, for instance, in order to decrease the opportunity of rain fade and to neutralize any build up of ice and snow on the antenna.
It has actually even been utilized for plant growing. The Groasis Waterboxx is a device designed for growing little plants in locations of extreme drought which makes it possible for the youthful sapling to have adequate water reach its origins till the roots drop much sufficient into the ground to reach water. The Waterboxx can then be taken out and made use of once again elsewhere. Nano innovation allows the Waterboxx to harvest condensation and condensation and channel it to the roots of the sapling also in areas of desert.
In order to safeguard the paintwork of your car and preserve that fresh out of the display room appearance with none of the hard work, nano paint protection is the solution for the discriminating motorist. You will certainly never need to worry about scratch marks or bird droppings, and your car will just need a fast rinse to eliminate any kind of dirt. It doesn’t concern whether your car is new, or numerous years old; we can keep it the method it is, or recover it to the method it was.
You will certainly additionally manage to laugh at your next-door neighbors cleaning and brightening every Sunday early morning! Any paint problem of your car you may visit us always.
I’ve been an electrician in Los Angeles since 1979, over 30 years. In that time, I’ve seen the work of more than a few rip-off electricians. Customers tell me that they hired some company — let’s call them “Joe’s Rip-Off Electric” — and, I find that the customer was way overcharged. Sometimes the work wasn’t even needed. I’ve also seen the work of electricians who don’t know what they’re doing yet. Sometimes I’ve been hired to clean up a job by someone we’ll call “Justin Amateur Electric.” Every problem you have our emergency electrician Brisbane do comes with a minimum six month guarantee, so you can put your faith in the quality of our electrical work.
How to avoid such electricians? If your job is an installation of new electrical components, the key is to ask for a free estimate over the phone. This doesn’t apply to repairing something that used to work — in this case, the electrician needs to see the job to tell you a price. He’ll need to troubleshoot with his tools and track down the culprit. But for installation of a new light fixture, a new electrical panel, or even an entire house rewire, a knowledgeable electrician should usually be able to give you a ballpark estimate without even seeing your job.
Why is a Free Estimate so important? Joe Rip-Off Electric won’t want to give you an estimate over the phone. Joe has a different plan. He wants to send an electrician to your home or business to look at the job. He’ll charge you for looking over the job, figuring it all out, and then will give you an estimate. He’ll charge for the estimate, but he’ll explain that he’ll deduct it from the final bill.
One variation on this plan is that Joe will tell you that he gives free estimates but that he must do it on-site. You’ll need to pay him for his travel time or pay some other fee. In any such approach, you’ll be paying to get the estimate.
Here’s Joe’s thinking. Once you’ve run up a bill for the estimate, you’ll want to recoup the cost by agreeing to have Joe do the job. Only problem is that now you’re stuck with Joe. Joe knows this and knows that you haven’t had a chance to get competitive bids. He has a free hand to overcharge you.
If you ask Justin Amateur Electric for a free estimate over the phone, Justin will also explain that he needs to see the job first. But he doesn’t have the same reason as Joe. Justin doesn’t know enough about electric to give you an estimate. He’s afraid that he’ll overestimate, or more likely, underestimate and lose money doing your job. If you hire him, you’re taking a chance with the quality and safety of the work. And the job may drag on while Justin learns the trade at your expense.
Get three estimates. You can avoid both Joe Rip-Off Electric and Justin Amateur by getting a free estimate over the phone. When you ask for an estimate, describe the work that you want accurately. Get estimates from at least three electricians. Don’t necessarily go with the lowest estimate. You want an electrical system that works, that passes inspection if a permit is needed, and that’s safe. So, while you’re getting the estimate, pay attention to clues about quality and competence.
If an electrician doesn’t give a free over-the-phone estimate, does it necessarily mean he’s dishonest or incompetent? No. Some honest and experienced electricians have developed a policy over the years of not giving free estimates. This is because giving a free estimate, either over-the-phone or on-site, takes time. An electrician can feel taken advantage of when giving free estimates. He’s occasionally gotten calls from people who have already chosen another electrician but are just calling around to find a low estimate so that they can bargain down the price of the electrician they’ve already selected.
While I’m aware of this type of customer, I believe that most times giving a free estimate over the phone is both helpful to the customer and a good business practice. I do take care as to when I’ll send out an electrician to look at a job and give a firm bid. We’ll send out an electrician if I trust the customer to go ahead with the job on a bid that’s equal to or lower than our original phone estimate.
Surprisingly, sometimes our firm bid is lower than the original phone estimate. This can happen if the electrician goes to the job and realizes by looking things over that there’s a more efficient way to get the job done.
Get a firm bid in writing. After you get free estimates on installing a new electrical component, the next step is to have an electrician come to your job site. On a new installation, before doing any work, they should usually be able to give you a firm bid in writing and sign it. If you agree to a written bid, you shouldn’t have to pay more for the job regardless of what the electrician finds when he actually does the job.
Repair jobs require a visit to the job site. With repair jobs, you won’t be able to rely on the “Free Estimate” technique for finding an electrician. You’ll need to rely on checking out the electrician’s website and customer references and paying attention to your comfort level with the honesty and competence of the company.
If you need something fixed that used to work, most often the electrician will need to do go to your job and charge by the half hour or hour for taking out his tools and troubleshooting. However, within a half hour to an hour, he should know the extent of the problem. At that point, if he hasn’t already fixed the problem, the electrician should give you a firm bid in writing before doing more work.
Often, by the time the electrician has figured out the problem (within a half hour to an hour or so) — let’s say it’s a loose wire — it will take another minute or so to fix it. In fact, he may not be certain that the loose wire was the entire problem until he tightens the wire, the circuit now works, and the job is done.
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Kim Hopkins has been a Los Angeles electrician since 1979. His company, The Electric Connection at http://www.TheElectricConnection.com, is one of the foremost electrical contracting companies in the L.A. area. Kim has done trainings on electrical safety for home inspectors throughout Los Angeles. For a $25 off coupon on your first electrical job as well as other coupons, go to http://www.theelectricconnection.com/coupon.php.
Selecting the right electrical contractor isn’t as easy as picking someone out of the Yellow Pages. The ramifications of hiring the wrong contractor can be financially disastrous and even dangerous. We provide 24 hour electrician Brisbane to fix urgent problems with electrical systems or emergency electrical breakdowns.
First and foremost, it’s imperative to know if the contractor you’re considering hiring, is licensed, bonded, and has adequate general liability and workers compensation insurance.
Then, you need to determine if they are experienced in the type of work you need performed, and if they are generally considered good, honest and reputable.
The best place to start answering some of these questions is at the Board of Examiners of Electrical Contractors and / or the Division of Consumer Affairs (basically the Authority having Jurisdiction), and of course, the Better Business Bureau.
Now let’s pretend for a moment that you have an electrical job you need done.
Not an emergency — perhaps it’s just fixing a light that stopped working.
What would you do?
Would you call a few contractors and get multiple bids? You can, but I wouldn’t necessarily suggest it.
Most people think that they should get multiple bids for every job. This isn’t the case, and in actuality, putting to bid every little job may in fact backfire.
Good contractors are few and far in between, and asking for multiple bids for a small job will only alienate them the next time around. Try looking at this from their point of view. Their time is worth probably about $100/ hr, and yet, he or she makes the time to come to your residence and provide you with a free estimate for whatever work you may need.
Typically, a good contractor will try to provide you with an “extra-competitive” bid, especially the first time around, just to make you a customer.
But how can you tell if the first contractor walking into your house is The good contractor? Some simple rules may apply here, but remember there also are exceptions to every rule.
o A good contractor will typically look the part. In other words, if he or she looks messy and disorganized, then it’s probably indicative of the type of work he or she does. Someone who takes pride in their work usually takes pride in their appearance. Some contractors may argue this point, but remember we’re talking generalities here and not the exceptions. He or she should have some type of company identification (even a shirt with a logo would do).
o A good contractor will have company cards with their company name and / or their name, telephone and license # on it.
o A good contractor will respond to your calls quickly and provide you with a free estimate (for most jobs) the same day or within a reasonable amount of time, and will take the time to explain what they will do and how they will do it.
o A good contractor will never offer to do the job without taking out permits and may even walk away from a job if the homeowner insists on not taking them. Remember, permits are additional insurance for the homeowner guaranteeing (through inspection) that the job was performed safely and correctly.
o A good contractor will never cut corners and do something unsafe in order to accommodate your budget. They will, instead, offer suggestions on how to modify your plans to meet both their code and safety requirements, and your budget. If these two cannot meet, then they will wish you good luck and walk away from the job.
o A good contractor will be happy to provide you with copies of their insurance certificates and references when asked. Try not asking for them unless it’s a decent size job.
Suppose a homeowner would like to make a minor alteration or addition to their electrical system. If the electrical system is old, then that part of the system may need to be brought up to current code standards before they can add to it or modify it.
In order to circumvent this regulation, the homeowner may insist that the job be done without permits and possibly even hire someone unlicensed to do the work.
What he or she doesn’t realize is that if their house burns down, they will very likely NOT be covered. Your homeowner’s policy probably states (very clearly) that anyone doing work on the residence has to be properly licensed and all building, plumbing and electrical codes must be followed, and work performed with permits wherever required.
If you hired someone whom you thought was licensed, but ultimately wasn’t, it still may NOT be covered because you didn’t take out permits for the work, and as far as the insurance company is concerned, it was done illegally.
If and when you decide to put a job out to bid, make sure that the work is properly specified (in minute detail) so that all the contractors are bidding on exactly the same things. Otherwise, there’s no way of telling who’s bidding apples and who is bidding oranges. Not properly specifying a job is probably the most common mistake homeowners make.
Why? Let’s assume you need to have 10 receptacles, 4 lights and 2 dimmers installed in a room.
Without specifying the exact types such as (Standard, Decora, other), amperage (15/20), location and method of use (this is used by good contractors to determine how many receptacles to put on a single circuit), types of lights, bulbs (R30, R40, halogens, etc.) and trims (for Hi Hats) standard, eyeballs, etc., wattage of bulbs (determines type and rating of dimmers used), there is no way of telling who is bidding what. And these are just some of the variables used for a fairly simple job!
o A good contractor always uses first-class, contractor-grade materials and never uses anything else, regardless of budget. They will usually price and give you the higher grade items automatically. This is where they get in trouble when bidding with other contractors. Someone else may be using approved but inferior materials, which would enable them to come in considerably lower than the good contractor. They probably know that you’ll have problems with the items installed sooner rather than later, but don’t care because it falls beyond their warrantee period (if they even have one).
o A good contractor will take into consideration how the receptacles are being used (such as computers, entertainment equipment, vacuum cleaner, etc.) and automatically factor in (price) dedicated lines for these items, even though current codes may allow all of the receptacles to be wired on a single circuit.
Other contractors won’t, and will therefore be able to do the job cheaper. Of course, when you start tripping breakers because the new receptacles are overloading the circuit, there won’t be anything to do about it, because it didn’t violate any codes at the time, and more importantly, you didn’t specify it.
But how could you specify it? You’re not in the electrical field, and you assumed the contractor would know better and factor this in.
Well, you’re right. The good contractor already factored it in, but you gave the job to the other one.
Are you starting to get the picture about the dangers of multiple bids? Very often, you don’t end up with the good contractor.
That’s a pretty typical bidding scenario, and it’s obvious why people are intimidated dealing with contractors. Make the wrong move and it can spell big trouble.
Anyway, if you do bid the work, try to have it properly specified perhaps by an architect or engineer. A good rule of thumb would be, if you get multiple bids, always pick from the middle up, and never, ever pick the lowest bid.
When you’ve finally selected a contractor, ask them for a copy of their insurance policies, and make sure everything (including start and end dates on larger jobs) is in writing.
Very often smaller contractors work out of their own house or garage, and many do not carry workers compensation insurance. This may or may not be a factor. If they have a helper with them or send someone else to your house to do the work, it becomes a huge factor.
Without this insurance policy, you (the homeowner) are 100 % liable for any accidents their workers may incur. Additionally, many contractors have only enough general liability insurance to satisfy state regulations, but nowhere near enough to pay for your house if it burns down.
Finally, a last note of caution; as with everything else in life, “you get what you pay for “.
In other words, don’t let price alone be the determining factor when hiring an electrical contractor. Remember, if a plumber messes up, you’ll have a flood, if an electrical contractor messes up you’ll have a fire or perhaps even worse.
This article was written by John Frezados and published on www.electrician-electricalcontractor.com [http://www.electrician-electricalcontractor.com] , which is a website dedicated to providing industry, trade and employment information for electricians and electrical contractors. The article was part of a series of articles at www.electrician-electricalcontractor.com/electricalcontractor.html [http://www.electrician-electricalcontractor.com/electricalcontractor.html] , written for Electrical Contractors, to help improve their methods of operation and profitability. John Frezados is a Mechanical Engineer, a Licensed Master Electrician and Certified Electrical Instructor, and has over 20 years experience in the Electrical / General Contracting fields. He currently spends his time writing, teaching and consulting in the Electro-Mechanical Contracting and Engineering fields. He has authored numerous books and courses, such as “The Electrical Contractor’s Blueprint for Success” and “Custom Estimation Systems for Electrical Contractors” and teaches certified continuing education courses (listed at www.ccesllc.com ) for Electrical Contractors.
The primary purpose of fixing concrete cracks is to help keep moisture from working its way into the cracks. A secondary benefit of fixing concrete cracks is improving the appearance of your driveway. Considering that many homes have front-facing driveways, it is a good way to help improve your home’s curb appeal. Before you begin the repair, scope out the general area and try to get a feel for what caused the crack. Concrete cracks can be caused by growing tree roots, impact damage, weight overloading, etc. The most common cause of concrete cracks is standing water, which, over time, works its way into the concrete and expands and contracts according to the temperature. Concrete is one of our most important building products but the cost for concrete driveway somehow manageable. We use it for house slabs, driveways, paving and much more.
Before you begin fixing the actual crack, think long and hard about how you can eliminate the cause of the problem. Preventing further damage is vital to the overall success of your repair job. The methods used to fix concrete cracks depend on the size of the actual crack.
Regardless of size, the first step should include cleaning the crack to create clean surfaces that are ready to bond with the repair materials.
Begin by breaking off any loose pieces of concrete with a screwdriver or chisel (be cautious you don’t needlessly enlarge the crack).
Once you’ve cleaned the crack’s edges, use a firm wired brush to remove any remaining debris.
Next, remove as much loose debris from within the crack as possible. This is best done with an air compressor but if you don’t have one available, you can use a shop vac or even canned air, which is commonly used to clean computer keyboards. The idea here is to clean out all of the dust and debris from within the crack.
Now that the crack has been prepared for repair, follow the steps below according to the size of the crack. Follow the specific directions that are printed on the packaging of whatever product you end up using to make your repair.
Fixing Small, Hairline Concrete Cracks
Textured caulk, concrete sealer or pourable grout designed for repairing concrete are good ways to fix small concrete cracks.
If you’re using concrete sealer or pourable grout, begin by lightly wetting the crack — a spray bottle filled with water will work well (textured caulk is best applied to a dry crack).
With all products, completely fill the crack and use a pointing trowel to push the grout or sealer into the crack.
If you’re using textured caulk, provide some overfill to account for shrinkage as the caulk dries.
If you’re wearing thick rubber gloves, you can use your thumb to ensure that you’re completely filling the crack.
In all cases, refer to specific product manufacturer guidelines for application instructions.
In the past, when a concrete patio or driveway started to show serious signs of aging, using a jackhammer or bringing in a bulldozer were the only repair options. Today there are more practical alternatives. If you’re thinking about installing a driveway, it’s important to consider a couple of different things like cost of new driveway Perth.
Polymer-based cement resurfacers are formulated to transform cracked, spalled, weatherworn concrete to like-new condition. The top dressing we used, Ardex All-Purpose Concrete Resurfacer, is made of portland cement and high-performance polymers. It’s mixed with water and applied with a steel trowel, squeegee or push broom to a thickness of only 1/16 inch. One 20-lb. bag costs about $25 and covers 50 to 60 square feet. (The average concrete driveway is about 500 square feet.)
Besides patios and driveways, Ardex can be used to resurface concrete stairs, sidewalks, garage floors, and most vertical surfaces. For our project, we resurfaced a 9 X 27-foot driveway and 3 X 18-foot walkway using six bags of Ardex. It took two people five hours to complete the job. The work isn’t particularly difficult, but the pace is frenetic. Once the water is mixed in, you’ve got less than 30 minutes to apply the concrete dressing.
For optimum results, work on a day with low humidity, no rain and an air temperature ranging between 70° and 75°F. The surface temperature of the existing concrete must be at least 50°F.
Fill the Cracks
Patch all cracks, crevices, and holes in the old concrete surface. For hairline cracks up to 1/8 inch wide, mix four parts of Ardex Concrete Dressing to one part water. Force the thick paste into the cracks with a putty knife. For larger cracks up to 1/2 inch wide, use concrete-repair caulk. Squeeze the caulk into the cracks with a caulking gun, and smooth it with a putty knife.
Large concrete slabs are typically divided into sections by expansion joints, which help control cracking. The ½- to ½-inch-wide joints are usually filled with asphalt-saturated felt, a wood 1×4 or plastic channel. These joints must remain exposed to allow the slab to expand and contract; don’t cover them with the cement top dressing. Mask each expansion joint with a strip of duct tape.
Use a 650-rpm, ½-inch drill motor and a heavy-duty mixing paddle to mix the concrete dressing to a smooth consistency. Pour 2½ quarts of water into a clean 5-gallon bucket. Add a 20-pound bag of the dressing and mix continuously for two minutes. Lift out the paddle and stand it in a bucket of clean water.
Spread the Dressing
Pour the dressing onto the slab and immediately spread it out. Meanwhile, have a helper mix the next batch. For small areas, like walkways and stairs, spread the dressing with a flat steel trowel. Press down hard to force the dressing into every crevice.
Texture the Surface
Carefully draw a medium-bristle push broom across the wet areas to create a textured, slip-resistant surface. If you notice any bare spots, add more concrete dressing with a trowel, and brush the area again.
Spreading on Large Areas
For larger areas, such as patios or driveways, spread the dressing with a long-handle squeegee. Press down hard to fill all surface imperfections. Follow up with the push broom.
Pull up the duct tape from the expansion joints immediately after sweeping the surface. The surface can be walked on after about two hours, but don’t drive your car on it for at least six hours. After 24 hours, protect the new surface with a clear, waterborne masonry sealer.